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Air Pollution Modelling

Front Matter Pages i-xviii. Front Matter Pages Pages Arnfield, J. Baik, A. Baklanov et al. Sven-Erik Gryning, Ekaterina Batchvarova.

Download e-book Meteorological and Air Quality Models for Urban Areas

Nielsen, Bjarne Amstrup. Alexander Baklanov, Jason Ching, C. Grimmond, Alberto Martilli. Back Matter Pages Any approach to meteorological modelling needs to take into account a variety of processes that interact synergistically at different scales mainly in mid-latitude and complex terrain areas.

Because of their potential to resolve regional and local atmospheric circulations, meso-meteorological models represent interesting tools.

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They are highly complex and their adaptation to a particular region requires an in-depth understanding of the limits of parameterization applicability. Over the past few years there has been a growing need to simulate meteorological fields for complex situations at finer spatial resolutions.

This has been partly stimulated by scientific and technological advances eg in dynamics, computational methods and facilities and partly by policy pressures requiring more detailed assessments of air pollution on urban to regional scales. As a consequence, complex dynamic models have increasingly been used in Europe and the USA for meteorological and air pollution applications. Models developed for short- or long-range applications, however, are not always appropriate in flow conditions involving intermediate mesoscale features and processes of the order of km.

This is because parameterizations, working hypotheses and configurations need to be different for differently scaled models as stated in the explanatory memorandum for the implementation of the European Concerted Research Action designated COST Action 'Enhancing meso-scale meteorological modelling capabilities for air pollution and dispersion applications'.

In this context, our group is interested in situations of complex atmospheric flows for which mesoscale models are necessary eg sea breezes, valleys and layered flows.

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It is generally acknowledged that current models are far from perfect; our goal is therefore to identify the gaps in our knowledge. Meteorological fields applied to air quality models from global to local scales may contain significant uncertainties that adversely affect simulations. In addition to these variables, the forecasting of air quality in mid-latitudes as in Mediterranean coastal regions is also highly sensitive to the fact that non-local mesoscale effects strongly determine flows at urban scales as reiterative experimental results have evidenced. The aforementioned atmospheric state variables are insufficient under meteorological conditions marked by non-local dynamic effects as, for example, the compensatory subsidences over the Mediterranean coasts associated with the orographic injections resulting from the coupling of sea breezes and inland orographic upslope winds.